Narrative and point of view
Narrative is viewed as a type of text that recounts some story illustrating a certain event. Event is a change in a situation being told about, where the situation is a set of described circumstances. The characteristic features of any narrative are eventfulness and fictionality. Eventfulness is obligatory existence of some event that may be achieved through relevance, unpredictability, consecutiveness, irreversibility and non-repeatability of a change. Relevance is a signal that a certain event is essential for the further narrative. Unpredictability is a signal that event is something unexpected. Consecutiveness is the influence of the event's effects on the further narrative. Irreversibility is a negative extent of probability that the event may be cancelled. Non-repeatability is a presumption that the event cannot be repeated. Fictionality is regarded as a quality of any narrative if its content is not based on fact but produced by the imagination of a certain writer.
The term 'point of view' denotes a general way of representing events. Focalisation specifies the point of view positioned by the story subject. Perspective specifies the point of view positioned by the object narrated. Thus 'point of view' differs (as the most generalised view of events) from 'perspective' (as presupposing the foreshortened which is seen by the character from a certain standpoint).
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